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新型城镇化的基础设施投资机会与融资模式创新(图)

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月20日 20:57:09
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(杨)(萍)(  本)(报)(记)(者)(耿)(雁)(冰)(  实)(习)(记)(者)(张)(梦)(洁)(北)(京)(报)(道)(  《国)(家)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(规)(划)(》(以)(下)(简)(称)(“规)(划)(”)中)(明)(确)(提)(出)(了)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(的)(任)(务)(和)(目)(标)(。基)(础)(设)(施)(领)(域)(公)(私)(合)(作)(发)(展)(,世)(界)(各)(国)(都)(在)(推)(进)(。PPP(公)(私)(合)(作)(伙)(伴)(关)(系)()在)(中)(国)(有)(近)(30年)(的)(发)(展)(历)(史)(。但)(现)(在)(看)(来)(,在)(新)(的)(环)(境)(下)(,其)(发)(展)(机)(遇)(与)(挑)(战)(何)(在)(?在)(清)(华)(大)(学)(举)(办)(的)(“新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(与)(可)(持)(续)(发)(展)(高)(层)(论)(坛)(”上)(,发)(改)(委)(投)(资)(所)(副)(所)(长)(杨)(萍)(给)(出)(了)(答)(案)(。  基)(础)(设)(施)(投)(资)(机)(会)(  杨)(萍)(表)(示)(,关)(于)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(基)(础)(设)(施)(,规)(划)(提)(出)(了)(6大)(方)(面)(的)(发)(展)(指)(标)(:百)(万)(人)(口)(以)(上)(城)(市)(,城)(市)(公)(共)(交)(通)(占)(机)(动)(化)(出)(行)(的)(比)(例)(,要)(从)(2012年)(的)(45%提)(高)(到)(60%;城)(镇)(公)(共)(供)(水)(普)(及)(率)(,要)(从)(目)(前)(的)(81.7%左)(右)(提)(高)(到)(90%的)(水)(平)(;城)(市)(污)(水)(处)(理)(率)(从)(目)(前)(的)(87.3%进)(一)(步)(提)(高)(到)(95%的)(水)(平)(;城)(市)(生)(活)(垃)(圾)(的)(无)(害)(化)(处)(理)(率)(,也)(要)(从)(今)(天)(的)(84.8%达)(到)(95%;城)(市)(家)(庭)(宽)(带)(接)(入)(能)(力)(,从)(现)(在)(的)(4Mbps的)(水)(平)(提)(高)(到)(50Mbps以)(上)(;城)(市)(社)(区)(综)(合)(服)(务)(设)(施)(的)(覆)(盖)(率)(,从)(目)(前)(的)(72.5%到)(实)(现)(全)(覆)(盖)(。  杨)(萍)(指)(出)(,根)(据)(不)(同)(类)(型)(的)(城)(市)(提)(出)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(发)(展)(的)(方)(向)(和)(任)(务)(,将)(城)(市)(分)(为)(三)(类)(:中)(心)(城)(市)(、中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(。虽)(然)(说)(大)(中)(小)(三)(类)(城)(市)(,可)(能)(在)(经)(济)(发)(展)(增)(长)(速)(度)(或)(总)(体)(规)(模)(有)(差)(异)(,但)(在)(基)(本)(公)(共)(服)(务)(的)(均)(等)(上)(,趋)(于)(一)(致)(,因)(此)(三)(类)(城)(市)(分)(类)(规)(划)(。  中)(心)(城)(市)(在)(经)(济)(上)(的)(定)(位)(主)(要)(是)(增)(强)(附)(设)(带)(动)(功)(能)(,对)(应)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(发)(展)(方)(向)(和)(要)(求)(,体)(现)(在)(加)(强)(与)(周)(边)(城)(镇)(基)(础)(设)(施)(连)(接)(和)(公)(共)(服)(务)(的)(共)(享)(方)(面)(,建)(设)(一)(小)(时)(交)(通)(圈)(;中)(小)(城)(市)(经)(济)(发)(展)(在)(规)(划)(中)(的)(定)(位)(是)(要)(加)(快)(发)(展)(,加)(强)(市)(政)(基)(础)(设)(施)(,以)(及)(公)(共)(服)(务)(设)(施)(建)(设)(、教)(育)(医)(疗)(等)(公)(共)(资)(源)(配)(置)(要)(向)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(县)(城)(体)(现)(,引)(导)(高)(等)(学)(校)(和)(职)(业)(院)(校)(在)(中)(小)(城)(市)(布)(局)(,优)(质)(教)(育)(和)(医)(疗)(机)(构)(在)(中)(小)(城)(市)(设)(立)(分)(支)(机)(构)(,增)(强)(集)(聚)(要)(素)(的)(吸)(引)(力)(。小)(城)(镇)(要)(根)(据)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(规)(划)(中)(所)(提)(出)(的)(发)(展)(方)(向)(和)(人)(类)(社)(会)(进)(步)(的)(实)(践)(经)(验)(,有)(重)(点)(地)(发)(展)(。  在)(综)(合)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(的)(建)(设)(方)(面)(,杨)(萍)(称)(,未)(来)(综)(合)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(建)(设)(,到)(2020年)(还)(有)(很)(大)(的)(增)(长)(空)(间)(。她)(表)(示)(,综)(合)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(的)(发)(展)(目)(标)(是)(,到)(2020年)(普)(通)(铁)(路)(网)(覆)(盖)(20万)(以)(上)(人)(口)(的)(城)(市)(,快)(速)(铁)(路)(网)(基)(本)(覆)(盖)(50万)(以)(上)(人)(口)(的)(城)(市)(,普)(通)(国)(道)(基)(本)(覆)(盖)(县)(城)(,国)(家)(高)(速)(公)(路)(基)(本)(覆)(盖)(20万)(以)(上)(人)(口)(城)(市)(,民)(用)(航)(空)(网)(络)(不)(断)(扩)(展)(,航)(空)(服)(务)(覆)(盖)(全)(国)(90%左)(右)(的)(人)(口)(。  目)(标)(具)(体)(细)(分)(而)(言)(,一)(方)(面)(,在)(城)(市)(群)(之)(间)(完)(善)(综)(合)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(。要)(依)(托)(国)(家)(“五)(纵)(五)(横)(”综)(合)(大)(通)(道)(,加)(强)(东)(中)(部)(城)(市)(群)(对)(外)(交)(通)(骨)(干)(网)(络)(薄)(弱)(环)(节)(的)(建)(设)(,加)(快)(西)(部)(城)(市)(群)(对)(外)(交)(通)(骨)(干)(网)(络)(建)(设)(,最)(终)(形)(成)(以)(铁)(路)(、高)(速)(公)(路)(为)(骨)(干)(,以)(普)(通)(国)(省)(道)(为)(基)(础)(,与)(民)(航)(、水)(路)(和)(管)(道)(共)(同)(组)(成)(的)(连)(接)(东)(西)(、纵)(贯)(南)(北)(的)(综)(合)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(。  另)(一)(方)(面)(,在)(城)(市)(群)(内)(部)(,构)(建)(在)(城)(市)(群)(之)(间)(大)(的)(城)(市)(。按)(照)(优)(化)(结)(构)(的)(要)(求)(,在)(城)(市)(群)(内)(部)(,以)(轨)(道)(交)(通)(和)(高)(速)(公)(路)(为)(骨)(干)(,以)(普)(通)(公)(路)(为)(基)(础)(,有)(效)(衔)(接)(大)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(的)(多)(层)(次)(的)(快)(速)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(,提)(升)(东)(部)(地)(区)(城)(市)(群)(综)(合)(交)(通)(运)(输)(一)(体)(化)(水)(平)(,建)(成)(以)(城)(际)(铁)(路)(,高)(速)(公)(路)(为)(主)(体)(的)(快)(速)(客)(运)(和)(大)(能)(力)(货)(运)(网)(络)(,中)(西)(部)(地)(区)(城)(市)(群)(要)(以)(快)(速)(铁)(路)(、高)(速)(公)(路)(建)(设)(为)(主)(导)(,形)(成)(城)(市)(群)(类)(快)(速)(交)(通)(运)(输)(网)(络)(。  其)(次)(,在)(城)(市)(内)(部)(,建)(设)(以)(铁)(路)(、公)(路)(客)(运)(站)(和)(机)(场)(为)(主)(的)(综)(合)(运)(输)(枢)(纽)(,以)(铁)(路)(进)(一)(步)(的)(提)(高)(交)(通)(运)(输)(的)(效)(率)(。此)(外)(,要)(改)(善)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(的)(交)(通)(条)(件)(,加)(强)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(与)(交)(通)(干)(线)(、交)(通)(枢)(纽)(城)(市)(的)(连)(接)(,加)(快)(国)(省)(干)(线)(公)(路)(升)(级)(改)(造)(,提)(高)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(公)(路)(技)(术)(等)(级)(,通)(行)(能)(力)(和)(铁)(路)(覆)(盖)(率)(,改)(善)(交)(通)(条)(件)(和)(服)(务)(水)(平)(。  杨)(萍)(说)(,包)(括)(绿)(色)(城)(市)(、智)(慧)(城)(市)(和)(人)(文)(城)(市)(建)(设)(,也)(与)(基)(础)(设)(施)(相)(关)(。城)(镇)(化)(发)(展)(过)(程)(中)(所)(涉)(及)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(面)(之)(广)(,范)(围)(之)(大)(。而)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(推)(进)(,也)(伴)(随)(着)(城)(市)(化)(率)(的)(提)(升)(,相)(应)(的)(带)(来)(了)(基)(础)(设)(施)(的)(巨)(大)(投)(资)(需)(求)(。  融)(资)(模)(式)(需)(创)(新)(  “基)(础)(设)(施)(投)(资)(需)(求)((或)(投)(资)(规)(模)(),在)(未)(来)(的)(若)(干)(年)(中)(,还)(将)(占)(非)(常)(高)(的)(比)(重)(,从)(短)(期)(的)(经)(济)(变)(革)(来)(看)(,对)(经)(济)(的)(支)(撑)(作)(用)(还)(比)(较)(强)(。”杨)(萍)(说)(。  此)(前)(,财)(政)(部)(副)(部)(长)(王)(保)(安)(曾)(在)(城)(镇)(化)(投)(融)(资)(PPP模)(式)(的)(培)(训)(中)(说)(,目)(前)(我)(国)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(为)(53.6%,预)(计)(2020年)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(达)(到)(60%,由)(此)(带)(来)(的)(投)(资)(需)(求)(约)(为)(42万)(亿)(元)(。“基)(础)(设)(施)(投)(资)(空)(间)(巨)(大)(,是)(推)(进)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(重)(要)(着)(力)(点)(和)(突)(破)(口)(。”王)(保)(安)(如)(是)(说)(。  目)(前)(,由)(于)(地)(方)(政)(府)(财)(力)(建)(设)(不)(足)(,在)(基)(础)(设)(施)(融)(资)(的)(来)(源)(结)(构)(中)(,呈)(现)(出)(财)(政)(资)(金)(和)(银)(行)(贷)(款)(占)(比)(较)(高)(、国)(有)(土)(地)(使)(用)(权)(收)(入)(的)(依)(赖)(性)(强)(等)(两)(大)(特)(征)(。  这)(种)(融)(资)(结)(构)(,既)(和)(目)(前)(的)(财)(政)(体)(制)(相)(关)(,也)(和)(基)(础)(设)(施)(部)(门)(的)(公)(共)(产)(品)(设)(施)(相)(关)(。具)(体)(到)(细)(分)(领)(域)(中)(,比)(如)(交)(通)(运)(输)(仓)(储)(邮)(政)(业)(,国)(家)(预)(算)(内)(资)(金)(占)(比)(超)(过)(10%,国)(内)(贷)(款)(高)(的)(年)(份)(接)(近)(45%,低)(的)(年)(份)(也)(在)(30%以)(上)(。  国)(土)(部)(发)(布)(的)(2013年)(国)(土)(公)(报)(显)(示)(,截)(至)(2013年)(底)(,84个)(重)(点)(城)(市)(处)(于)(抵)(押)(状)(态)(的)(土)(地)(,有)(40万)(公)(顷)(以)(上)(,抵)(押)(贷)(款)(的)(总)(额)(接)(近)(8万)(亿)(。而)(与)(此)(同)(时)(,资)(源)(有)(限)(性)(的)(约)(束)(也)(在)(增)(强)(,资)(源)(瓶)(颈)(现)(状)(为)(土)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(速)(度)(远)(远)(快)(于)(人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(速)(度)(的)(现)(状)(敲)(响)(了)(警)(钟)(。  另)(一)(方)(面)(,据)(审)(计)(署)(公)(布)(的)(数)(据)(,已)(有)(高)(达)(17.9万)(亿)(元)(的)(地)(方)(债)(务)(急)(需)(化)(解)(风)(险)(。特)(别)(是)(在)(最)(近)(几)(年)(GDP增)(速)(开)(始)(下)(降)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(债)(务)(风)(险)(问)(题)(,实)(际)(上)(已)(经)(浮)(出)(水)(面)(。“杨)(萍)(说)(。  现)(阶)(段)(,中)(国)(经)(济)(进)(入)(一)(个)(新)(的)(增)(长)(阶)(段)(,基)(础)(设)(施)(的)(投)(融)(资)(环)(境)(也)(随)(之)(发)(生)(变)(化)(。今)(年)(以)(来)(,政)(府)(财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(速)(明)(显)(放)(缓)(,对)(地)(方)(政)(府)(基)(础)(设)(施)(能)(力)(产)(生)(较)(大)(的)(影)(响)(。同)(时)(,面)(临)(可)(能)(的)(土)(地)(资)(产)(价)(格)(重)(估)(预)(期)(,也)(会)(影)(响)(到)(地)(方)(政)(府)(的)(融)(资)(能)(力)(。  “需)(要)(在)(新)(的)(环)(境)(下)(有)(所)(创)(新)(、变)(革)(,才)(能)(够)(实)(现)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(过)(程)(中)(,所)(提)(出)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(发)(展)(任)(务)(以)(及)(基)(础)(设)(施)(发)(展)(目)(标)(。”杨)(萍)(分)(析)(说)(。  基)(础)(设)(施)(现)(有)(投)(融)(资)(模)(式)(如)(何)(改)(革)(创)(新)(?基)(础)(设)(施)(投)(融)(资)(体)(制)(改)(革)(的)(答)(案)(是)(—PPP模)(式)(。  但)(在)(实)(践)(中)(,并)(不)(是)(所)(有)(的)(PPP项)(目)(都)(是)(成)(功)(的)(。在)(PPP模)(式)(中)(,公)(共)(模)(式)(和)(私)(营)(机)(构)(各)(有)(独)(特)(的)(优)(势)(,并)(能)(够)(通)(过)(合)(作)(,实)(现)(优)(势)(互)(补)(。然)(而)(,公)(私)(营)(机)(构)(在)(合)(作)(过)(程)(中)(,二)(者)(的)(地)(位)(、诉)(求)(、话)(语)(权)(等)(并)(不)(相)(同)(,让)(私)(营)(机)(构)(主)(动)(投)(资)(,并)(深)(度)(参)(与)(基)(础)(设)(施)(长)(期)(建)(设)(中)(,在)(当)(下)(可)(谓)(挑)(战)(和)(机)(遇)(并)(存)(。  基)(础)(设)(施)(未)(来)(的)(发)(展)(,需)(要)(关)(注)(增)(速)(变)(化)(、资)(产)(价)(格)(估)(价)(变)(化)(、融)(资)(能)(力)(变)(化)(,需)(要)(加)(大)(力)(度)(推)(广)(使)(用)(PPP模)(式)(。而)(财)(政)(部)(今)(年)(也)(会)(选)(取)(一)(些)(试)(点)(推)(广)(PPP模)(式)(。  基)(础)(设)(施)(具)(有)(投)(资)(规)(模)(大)(,运)(营)(周)(期)(长)(的)(特)(征)(,这)(也)(对)(未)(来)(合)(同)(管)(理)(的)(能)(力)(提)(出)(更)(高)(的)(要)(求)(,因)(为)(它)(包)(括)(了)(建)(设)(期)(、运)(营)(期)(以)(及)(其)(他)(阶)(段)(的)(风)(险)(管)(控)(。“不)(管)(是)(私)(营)(部)(门)(,还)(是)(政)(府)(,都)(要)(适)(应)(新)(的)(环)(境)(、新)(的)(变)(化)(。双)(方)(都)(要)(提)(高)(对)(合)(同)(的)(管)(理)(能)(力)(。”杨)(萍)(说)(。  国)(内)(外)(实)(践)(经)(验)(表)(明)(,并)(不)(是)(所)(有)(的)(项)(目)(都)(适)(合)(用)(PPP的)(模)(式)(来)(运)(行)(。而)(决)(定)(PPP模)(式)(能)(否)(成)(功)(的)(因)(素)(,不)(仅)(包)(括)(项)(目)(的)(选)(择)(,也)(包)(括)(政)(府)(的)(合)(同)(管)(理)(能)(力)(。杨)(萍)(说)(:“可)(能)(下)(一)(阶)(段)(,政)(府)(要)(在)(能)(力)(建)(设)(方)(面)(加)(强)(培)(训)(。”  “除)(了)(资)(金)(问)(题)(,还)(有)(风)(险)(的)(分)(配)(问)(题)(。不)(同)(的)(公)(私)(合)(作)(模)(式)(,各)(个)(部)(分)(承)(担)(的)(风)(险)(不)(同)(,怎)(样)(更)(合)(理)(地)(认)(识)(到)(自)(己)(所)(承)(担)(的)(责)(任)(和)(所)(面)(对)(的)(风)(险)(,可)(能)(对)(PPP项)(目)(更)(好)(地)(运)(作)(,会)(起)(到)(很)(大)(作)(用)(。”她)(提)(醒)(说)(。(编)(辑)(林)(坤)()  作)(者)(:耿)(雁)(冰)(张)(梦)(洁)(
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