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科学家再次探测到引力波

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年07月21日 21:37:15
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(  时)(隔)(3个)(多)(月)(,LIGO再)(次)(探)(测)(到)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(,来)(源)(于)(距)(离)(地)(球)(14亿)(光)(年)(的)(两)(个)(黑)(洞)(的)(并)(合)(。
  NASA中)(文)(微)(博)(截)(图)(:北)(京)(时)(间)(2015年)(12月)(26日)(11时)(38分)(35秒)(,来)(自)(LIGO和)(Virgo的)(科)(学)(家)(第)(二)(次)(探)(测)(到)(了)(引)(力)(波)(事)(件)(。LIGO宣)(布)(了)(第)(二)(个)(黑)(洞)(合)(并)(事)(件)(。这)(次)(的)(黑)(洞)(合)(并)(事)(件)(称)(为)(GW150914,信)(号)(来)(自)(大)(约)(14亿)(光)(年)(外)(,一)(个)(黑)(洞)(的)(质)(量)(为)(我)(们)(太)(阳)(的)(14.2倍)(,另)(一)(个)(为)(7.5倍)(的)(太)(阳)(质)(量)(,合)(并)(后)(的)(质)(量)(为)(我)(们)(太)(阳)(的)(20.8倍)(。
  2015年)(12月)(26日)(,来)(自)(LIGO和)(Virgo合)(作)(组)(织)(的)(科)(学)(家)(收)(到)(了)(一)(份)(意)(料)(之)(外)(的)(圣)(诞)(礼)(物)(——在)(首)(次)(探)(测)(到)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(仅)(3个)(月)(之)(后)(,高)(新)(激)(光)(干)(涉)(仪)(引)(力)(波)(天)(文)(台)((AdvancedLIGO)的)(两)(个)(探)(测)(器)(就)(再)(次)(记)(录)(到)(了)(新)(的)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(。跟)(上)(次)(一)(样)(,这)(一)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(源)(自)(于)(两)(个)(黑)(洞)(即)(将)(合)(二)(为)(一)(之)(时)(最)(后)(的)(相)(互)(绕)(转)(,这)(种)(现)(象)(被)(称)(为)(并)(合)((coalescence)。尽)(管)(这)(一)(信)(号)(要)(比)(首)(次)(探)(测)(到)(的)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(更)(弱)(,但)(这)(一)(新)(发)(现)(的)(置)(信)(度)(仍)(然)(超)(过)(99.99999%。
  再)(次)(探)(测)(到)(引)(力)(波)(,表)(明)(这)(样)(的)(灾)(难)(性)(事)(件)(在)(宇)(宙)(中)(相)(当)(常)(见)(。这)(也)(意)(味)(着)(,当)(美)(国)(的)(高)(新)(激)(光)(干)(涉)(仪)(引)(力)(波)(天)(文)(台)(和)(意)(大)(利)(的)(高)(新)(室)(女)(座)(引)(力)(波)(探)(测)(器)((AdvancedVirgo)在)(升)(级)(后)(于)(2016年)(底)(恢)(复)(运)(行)(之)(后)(,很)(可)(能)(会)(检)(测)(到)(更)(多)(引)(力)(波)(事)(件)(。这)(将)(帮)(助)(科)(学)(家)(更)(好)(地)(理)(解)(成)(对)(出)(现)(的)(黑)(洞)(。
  黑)(洞)(是)(最)(大)(质)(量)(恒)(星)(演)(化)(的)(最)(终)(阶)(段)(。其)(中)(一)(些)(黑)(洞)(成)(对)(形)(成)(,相)(互)(旋)(转)(,并)(以)(引)(力)(波)(的)(形)(式)(损)(失)(能)(量)(,因)(而)(会)(逐)(渐)(靠)(近)(,直)(到)(抵)(达)(一)(个)(临)(界)(点)(,令)(整)(个)(过)(程)(突)(然)(加)(速)(。它)(们)(最)(终)(会)(并)(合)(成)(一)(个)(单)(独)(的)(黑)(洞)(。2015年)(12月)(26日)(探)(测)(到)(的)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(,就)(来)(源)(于)(并)(合)(之)(前)(最)(后)(的)(旋)(转)(阶)(段)(。
  依)(据)(观)(测)(到)(的)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(,科)(学)(家)(能)(够)(推)(断)(出)(那)(两)(个)(黑)(洞)(的)(质)(量)(,分)(别)(是)(太)(阳)(质)(量)(的)(8倍)(和)(14倍)((相)(比)(之)(下)(,2015年)(9月)(14日)(首)(次)(探)(测)(到)(的)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(,并)(合)(的)(那)(两)(个)(黑)(洞)(分)(别)(是)(太)(阳)(质)(量)(的)(29倍)(和)(36倍)()。黑)(洞)(合)(并)(之)(后)(形)(成)(了)(一)(个)(质)(量)(相)(当)(于)(太)(阳)(21倍)(的)(旋)(转)(黑)(洞)(,大)(约)(与)(太)(阳)(相)(当)(的)(物)(质)(转)(化)(成)(了)(能)(量)(,以)(引)(力)(波)(的)(形)(式)(释)(放)(出)(来)(。
  由)(于)(这)(次)(的)(两)(个)(黑)(洞)(较)(轻)(,它)(们)(相)(互)(靠)(近)(的)(速)(度)(就)(没)(有)(那)(么)(迅)(速)(:此)(次)(探)(测)(到)(的)(信)(号)(持)(续)(了)(几)(秒)(钟)(,而)(上)(次)(探)(测)(到)(的)(信)(号)(仅)(持)(续)(了)(不)(到)(0.5秒)(。因)(此)(,此)(次)(观)(测)(到)(的)(双)(黑)(洞)(并)(合)(前)(相)(互)(旋)(转)(的)(圈)(数)(,远)(远)(大)(于)(第)(一)(次)(观)(测)(到)(的)(引)(力)(波)(事)(件)(,这)(让)(科)(学)(家)(有)(机)(会)(对)(爱)(因)(斯)(坦)(的)(广)(义)(相)(对)(论)(进)(行)(一)(次)(完)(全)(不)(同)(的)(理)(论)(检)(验)(。
  此)(次)(观)(测)(到)(的)(黑)(洞)(并)(合)(事)(件)(,发)(生)(在)(距)(离)(地)(球)(大)(约)(14亿)(光)(年)(的)(地)(方)(,这)(意)(味)(着)(引)(力)(波)(在)(太)(空)(中)(穿)(行)(了)(14亿)(年)(,才)(抵)(达)(了)(位)(于)(美)(国)(路)(易)(斯)(安)(那)(州)(和)(华)(盛)(顿)(州)(的)(两)(台)(LIGO探)(测)(器)(。位)(于)(路)(易)(斯)(安)(那)(州)(利)(文)(斯)(顿)(的)(LIGO探)(测)(器)(比)(另)(一)(台)(位)(于)(华)(盛)(顿)(州)(汉)(福)(德)(的)(探)(测)(器)(早)(1.1毫)(秒)(记)(录)(到)(了)(引)(力)(波)(信)(号)(,让)(科)(学)(家)(能)(够)(大)(致)(测)(定)(引)(力)(波)(源)(的)(方)(位)(。
  再)(次)(观)(测)(到)(引)(力)(波)(事)(件)(,证)(实)(了)(成)(对)(出)(现)(的)(黑)(洞)(在)(宇)(宙)(中)(相)(当)(普)(遍)(。对)(LIGO探)(测)(器)(从)(2015年)(9月)(到)(2016年)(1月)(间)(采)(集)(的)(数)(据)(所)(作)(的)(系)(综)(分)(析)(暗)(示)(,2015年)(10月)(2日)(还)(有)(可)(能)(探)(测)(到)(了)(第)(三)(起)(此)(类)(事)(件)(,只)(不)(过)(置)(信)(度)(较)(低)(。
  最)(终)(,对)(此)(类)(观)(测)(的)(分)(析)(或)(许)(能)(够)(解)(释)(双)(黑)(洞)(的)(起)(源)(:到)(底)(是)(一)(对)(双)(星)(分)(别)(各)(自)(转)(变)(成)(黑)(洞)(,还)(是)(一)(个)(黑)(洞)(俘)(获)(了)(另)(一)(个)(黑)(洞)(?为)(了)(得)(到)(答)(案)(,就)(必)(须)(要)(有)(大)(量)(的)(观)(测)(样)(本)(,等)(到)(高)(新)(LIGO和)(高)(新)(Virgo在)(2016年)(秋)(天)(恢)(复)(运)(行)(之)(时)(,这)(一)(切)(皆)(有)(可)(能)(。正)(如)(高)(新)(LIGO探)(测)(器)(在)(首)(次)(数)(据)(采)(集)(阶)(段)(所)(证)(明)(的)(那)(样)(,引)(力)(波)(现)(在)(已)(经)(成)(为)(了)(一)(种)(全)(新)(的)(手)(段)(,来)(探)(索)(宇)(宙)(和)(宇)(宙)(中)(最)(基)(本)(的)(相)(互)(作)(用)(——引)(力)(。
  这)(一)(发)(现)(今)(天)((6月)(15日)()在)(美)(国)(天)(文)(学)(会)(圣)(迭)(戈)(会)(议)(上)(公)(布)(,并)(将)(发)(表)(在)(《物)(理)(评)(论)(快)(报)(》(PhysicalReviewLetters)上)(。
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